There are many psychologists who think that there are 5 basic dimensions of personality that are called personality traits. These 5 traits are: extroversion, kindness, frankness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The 5 are broad categories within personality traits and researchers do not always match the labels of each one, because some may be associated with others.

It is important to note that each of the five personality factors represents a range between two extremes. For example, extraversion represents a continuum between extreme extraversion and extreme introversion. In the real world, most people are somewhere between the two polar extremes of each dimension. Next you will better understand the 5 personality traits.


When a person is frank, they also have characteristics such as imagination or knowledge, these people often have a wide range of interests. People who have this trait as a dominant tend to be more adventurous and creative. They can also be more traditional and have trouble with abstract thinking. They are therefore creative, they like to try new things and want to face new challenges.

If you do not like changes, you do not enjoy new things, your imagination is conspicuous by its absence, new and creative ideas are not your thing and abstract concepts overwhelm you, then this is not your personality trait .


Standard characteristics of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control, and goal-directed behaviors. High consciousness tends to be organized and attentive to detail. These people spend time on good preparation, finish tasks early, pay attention to detail, and enjoy a well-organized life.

If you don’t like structures and schedules, if you’re messy, lose things, like to procrastinate on important things, or don’t finish what you start, this personality trait is not yours.


Extraversion is characterized by excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high levels of emotional expressiveness. People with a high level of extraversion are sociable and tend to have good energy in social situations. People who have low extraversion (or introversion) tend to be more reserved and social settings consume too much energy. If you are extrovert, you will enjoy being the center of attention, you will like to start conversations, meet new people, you will meet many people, you will make new friends easily, say things before you think about them or you feel good energy when you are around other people.

On the other hand, if you are not a very extroverted person, you will prefer solitude, you get tired when you have to socialize, you have difficulties starting conversations, you do not like conversations. banal, you think well before you speak and you don’t like being the center of attention.


This dimension of personality includes attributes such as confidence, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. People who are likable tend to be more cooperative, while people with this trait tend to be more competitive and even manipulative. People who are high on the kindness trait tend to take an interest in other people, care about others, are empirical, and enjoy helping.

On the other hand, if this personality trait is not yours, you will have little interest in others, little empathy, little interest in other people or in their lives, you will insult others without remorse.


Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness , moodiness, and emotional instability.  People who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability, and sadness.  Those with a low level in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally and to be more resilient people. If you have a high level of neuroticism, you are likely to experience a lot of stress, worry about trivial things too much, become easily irritated, feel anxious or are overwhelmed by small changes.

On the other hand, if this personality trait does not suit you, you will be emotionally stable, you will handle stress well, sadness does not suit you, you will not worry much and you will live a long time.

The formation of the personality

Research suggests that it is biological and environmental influences that play a crucial role in the formation of personalities. Twin studies suggest that both nature and nurture play a role in the development of each of the five personality factors.

A study of the genetic and environmental foundations of the five traits looked at 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of non-identical twins. The findings suggested that the heritability of each trait was 53% for extraversion, 41% for agreeableness, 44% for conscientiousness, 41% for neuroticism, and 61% for directness. 

Longitudinal studies also suggest that these big five personality traits tend to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. A study of working-age adults found that personality tended to be stable over a period of four to five years and showed little change as a result of adverse life events. Studies have shown that maturation can have an impact on all five traits. As people age, they tend to be less outgoing, less neurotic, and less open to experience.  Kindness and directness, on the other hand, tend to increase as people get older.

It is necessary to know that people’s behavior implies an interaction between the underlying personality and the situational variables. The situation in which a person finds himself, that is, the environment, has a very important role in how the person reacts. In most cases, people who are aware of their personality traits can know how to behave for their emotional benefit.

These dimensions are broad areas of the personality. All people have small traits of these 5 dimensions in their personality but there can always be a dominant trait. The personality of people is complex and people can present behaviors of several of the dimensions mentioned here.  

Elle Mcdonald

I am Elle Mcdonald Specializations in Psychology . Graduated in psychology from the University of Tennessee in 2000. Diploma of Advanced Studies in the Department of Personality, Evaluation and psychological treatments with excellent results.

First Level of Master in Clinical Psychology at the Center for Behavioral Therapists (recognized with a scientific-professional nature by the College of Psychologists)

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